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12-Jan-2017 03:01

Moreover, genes belonging to complex modules in the pretransfer species are unlikely to maintain their functionality when transferred alone to new species.

Thus, it is widely accepted that lateral gene transfer favors proteins with only a few protein–protein interactions.

Analyses of genetic diversity at nonrecombining uniparental loci (mitochondrial DNA [mt DNA] and the male-specific portion of the Y chromosome [MSY]) have provided important clues regarding human evolutionary events (Underhill and Kivisild 2007).

Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose—the main carbohydrate in milk—and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. At high latitudes, incident UVB levels are often too low for adequate vitamin D production (Jablonski and Chaplin 2010), so, in the absence of sufficient dietary sources of vitamin D, early northern European farmers may have been calcium deficient and in danger of developing rickets. 2005), consistent with an estimated LP frequency of 66% (Leis et al. Although a number of statistical methods that use contemporary data have been developed for detecting natural selection acting on novel alleles (Sabeti et al.

We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. 2002), predominates, whereas in the Middle East and most parts of Africa three other variants are commonly found in LP individuals (13,915*G, 13,907*G, and 14,010*C) (Ingram et al. 2007), Middle Neolithic Scandinavian hunter-gatherers (Malmstrom et al. 2009) and between Late Neolithic hunter-gatherer and modern (Malmström et al.

None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. 2010), Early Neolithic farmers from northeast Iberia (Lacan, Keyser, Ricaut, Brucato, Tarrus et al. 2009) populations, respectively, has been rejected using ancient DNA data.

Our dating results and phylogeography led to the following main conclusions: (1) Patrilineal lineages with ages approaching those of early AMH fossils survive today only in central-western Africa; (2) only a few evolutionarily successful MSY lineages survived between 160 and 115 kya; and (3) an early exit out of Africa (before 70 kya), which fits recent western Asian archaeological evidence, should be considered.

Our experimental design produced an unbiased resource of new MSY markers informative for the initial formation of the anatomically modern human gene pool, i.e., a period of our evolution that had been previously considered to be poorly accessible with paternally inherited markers.

Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose—the main carbohydrate in milk—and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. At high latitudes, incident UVB levels are often too low for adequate vitamin D production (Jablonski and Chaplin 2010), so, in the absence of sufficient dietary sources of vitamin D, early northern European farmers may have been calcium deficient and in danger of developing rickets. 2005), consistent with an estimated LP frequency of 66% (Leis et al. Although a number of statistical methods that use contemporary data have been developed for detecting natural selection acting on novel alleles (Sabeti et al.We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. 2002), predominates, whereas in the Middle East and most parts of Africa three other variants are commonly found in LP individuals (13,915*G, 13,907*G, and 14,010*C) (Ingram et al. 2007), Middle Neolithic Scandinavian hunter-gatherers (Malmstrom et al. 2009) and between Late Neolithic hunter-gatherer and modern (Malmström et al.None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. 2010), Early Neolithic farmers from northeast Iberia (Lacan, Keyser, Ricaut, Brucato, Tarrus et al. 2009) populations, respectively, has been rejected using ancient DNA data.Our dating results and phylogeography led to the following main conclusions: (1) Patrilineal lineages with ages approaching those of early AMH fossils survive today only in central-western Africa; (2) only a few evolutionarily successful MSY lineages survived between 160 and 115 kya; and (3) an early exit out of Africa (before 70 kya), which fits recent western Asian archaeological evidence, should be considered.Our experimental design produced an unbiased resource of new MSY markers informative for the initial formation of the anatomically modern human gene pool, i.e., a period of our evolution that had been previously considered to be poorly accessible with paternally inherited markers.In addition, we reanalyze published data from French Neolithic remains to both test for population continuity and further examine the evolution of LP in the region. 2011), and Late Neolithic farmers from southern France (Lacan, Keyser, Ricaut, Brucato, Duranthon et al. While rejection of population continuity does not constitute evidence of complete population replacement, it clearly indicates that a degree of inward gene flow has taken place (Skoglund et al. In this study, we report -13,910 C/T allele frequencies from Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age northeastern Iberia.